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Cluj-Napoca (pronunciation in Romanian: ['klu? na'poka]; German: Klausenburg; Hungarian: Kolozsvar; Latin: Napoca, Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis), until 1974 Cluj, is the second largest city in Romania and the seat of Cluj County, in north-western Transylvania. Geographically, it is roughly equally distant from Bucharest (323 km), Budapest (354 km) and Belgrade (327 km). The city lies in the valley of the Somesul Mic River and is the capital of the historical province of Transylvania.

Cluj-Napoca entered in the recent past in a period of rapid growth in terms of economics and demographics. The city's population is projected, according to Sorin Apostu, a manager at City Hall, to more than double by the late 2010s. Today, the city is one of the most important academic, cultural, industrial and business centres in Romania. Among other institutions, it hosts the largest university in the country, Babes-Bolyai University, with its famous botanical garden; nationally renowned cultural institutions; as well as the largest Romanian-owned commercial bank. Monocle magazine identified Cluj-Napoca as one of the top five places worldwide that are due their turn in the international spotlight during 2008. According to the American magazine InformationWeek, Cluj-Napoca is quickly becoming Romania's technopolis.


Cluj-Napoca, located in the central part of Transylvania, has a surface area of 179.5 square kilometres. The city lies at the confluence of the Apuseni Mountains, the Somes plateau and the Transylvanian plain. It sprawls over the valleys of Somesul Mic and Nadas, and, to some extent over the secondary valleys of the Popesti, Chintau, Borhanci and Popii rivers. The southern part of the city occupies the upper terrace of the northern slope of Feleac Hill, and is surrounded on three sides by hills or mountains with heights between 500 metres and 700 metres. The Somes plateau is situated to the east, while the northern part of town includes Dealurile Clujului ("the Hills of Cluj"), with the peaks, Lombului (684 m), Dealul Melcului (617 m), Techintau (633 m), Hoia (506 m) and Garbau (570 m).[62] Other hills are located in the western districts, and the hills of Calvaria and Cetatuia (Belvedere) are located near the centre of city.

Built on the banks of Somesul Mic River, the city is also crossed over by brooks or streams such as Paraul Tiganilor, Paraul Popesti, Paraul Nadasel, Paraul Chintenilor, Paraul Becas, Paraul Muratorii; Canalul Morilor runs through the centre of town.

The city is surrounded by forests and grasslands. Rare species of plants, such as Venus's slipper and iris, are found in the two botanical reservations of Cluj-Napoca, Fanatele Clujului and Rezervatia Valea Morii ("Mill Valley Reservation"). Animals such as boars, badgers, foxes, rabbits and squirrels live in nearby forest areas such as Faget and Hoia. The latter forest hosts the Romulus Vuia ethnographical park, with exhibits dating back to 1678. Various urban myths report alien encounters in the Hoia-Baciu forest, large networks of catacombs that connect the old churches of the city, or the presence of a monster in the nearby lake of Tarnita.


Cluj-Napoca has a continental climate, characterised by hot dry

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