Management Styles

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1.Management system

A management system is the framework of processes and procedures used to ensure that an organization can fulfill all tasks required to achieve its objectives.

For instance, an environmental management system enables organizations to improve their environmental performance through a process of continuous improvement. An oversimplification is "Plan, Do, Check, Act." A more complete system would include accountability (an assignment of personal responsibility) and a schedule for activities to be completed, as well as auditing tools to implement corrective actions in addition to scheduled activities, creating an upward spiral of continuous improvement.

Also as in the aforementioned management system, an occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) enables an organization to control its occupational health and safety risks and to improve its performance by means of continuous improvement.

1.1.Management styles

Various management styles can be employed dependent on the culture of the business, the nature of the task, the nature of the workforce and the personality and skills of the leaders.

This idea was further developped by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt (1973) who argued that the style of leadership is dependent upon the prevailing circumstance; therefore leaders should exercise a range of leadership styles and should deploy them as appropriate.

1. An Autocratic or authoritarian manager makes all the decisions, keeping the information and decision making among the senior management. Objectives and tasks are set and the workforce is expected to


(1) Borisoff, D. and D.A. Victor, Conflict Management: A Communication Skills Ap?proach, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1989.

(2) Conrad, Charles, Strategic Organizational Communication: An Integrated Perspective, Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1990.

(3) Deal, T. and A. Kennedy, Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1982.

(4) Gibb, J., "Defensive Communication," Journal of Business Communication 11(1961): 141-148.

(5) Goldhaber, Gerald M., Organizational Communication, Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1990.

(6) O'Reilly, C. A., "Intentional Distortion of Information in Organizational Commu?nication: a Laboratory and Field Investigation," Human Relations, February 1978, 173-193.

(7)Redding, W., Communication within the Organization, New York: Industrial Communication Council, 1973

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Mariana Nicolae